A 3D Printed Thermal Manikin Head for Evaluating Helmets for Convective and Radiative Heat Loss

Publication Type:

Conference Paper


Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018) Volume VII, Springer International Publishing, Volume VII, p.592–602 (2019)




Convective heat loss, Heat transfer, Helmet thermal performance, Radiative heat gain, Thermal manikin head, Wind tunnel


Thermal performance of three bicycle helmets for radiative and convective heat loss was evaluated through heat loss experiments in a wind tunnel. A 3D printed thermal manikin head of a 50th percentile western male population was developed. Thermal performance of a helmet was quantified by comparing the manikin head heat losses with and without helmet. Experiments were performed for two air velocities: 1.6 m/s and 6 m/s. An infrared heat lamp positioned above the manikin simulated the effect of solar load. The results from the experiments showed a convective cooling efficiency between 89{%} and 96{%} for open helmets and between 78{%} and 83{%} for closed helmets. The radiative heat gain ranged from 3.5 W to 4.5 W for open helmets and 5 W to 8 W for closed helmets.

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