An Extensive Multisensor Hyperspectral Benchmark Datasets of Intimate Mixtures of Mineral Powders

Publication Type:

Conference Paper


IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, p.5890-5893 (2023)


Since many materials behave as heterogeneous intimate mixtures with which each photon interacts differently, the relationship between spectral reflectance and material composition is very complex. Quantitative validation of spectral unmixing algorithms requires high-quality ground truth fractional abundance data, which are very difficult to obtain.In this work, we generated a comprehensive hyperspectral dataset of intimate mineral powder mixtures by homogeneously mixing five different clay powders (Kaolin, Roof clay, Red clay, mixed clay, and Calcium hydroxide). In total 325 samples were prepared. Among the 325 samples, 60 mixtures were binary, 150 were ternary, 100 were quaternary, and 15 were quinary. For each mixture (and pure clay powder), reflectance spectra are acquired by 13 different sensors, with a broad wavelength range between the visible and the long-wavelength infrared regions (i.e., between 350 nm and 15385 nm) and with a large variation in sensor types, platforms, and acquisition conditions. We will make this dataset public, to be used by the community for the validation of nonlinear unmixing methodologies (

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